The negative environmental impacts of extractive industry fall on local communities. It is Africans who absorb the environmental and social burden of resource extraction. The poor management and regulation of negative environmental and social impacts of resource extraction is at the centre of the struggle of local communities. Minerals have fueled criticism and, in some cases, hostile attitudes towards the minerals industry and governments among communities affected by mining, and by a range of civil society organisations. These impacts can be reduced and mitigated through inclusive and consultative processes.